The term brachycephalic comes from the Greek meaning ‘short’ and cephalic meaning ‘head’, i.e. brachycephalic animals are those with short heads.
Brachycephalic obstructive airway syndrome is the term given to the effects that the shortened head of these animals has on the passage of air through the upper airways. The signs can vary in severity from mild snoring or snorting noises to severe breathing problems.
Animals suffering from clinically significant BOAS can struggle to breathe during exercise and may suffer collapse due to lack of air. The reliance of dogs on panting to cool themselves also makes animals suffering from BOAS very susceptible to overheating and developing potentially very serious breathing difficulties in hot conditions. Affected dogs make excessive breathing efforts which creates abnormally high negative pressures in their airways. These negative pressures worsen the upper airway obstruction by collapsing the airways and inducing inflammation and swelling. It is also responsible for the development and deterioration of a number of secondary conditions associated with BOAS, such as gastro-oesophageal reflux, hiatial hernia and laryngeal collapse.
Brachycephalic breeds include those breeds of dog and cat that have an obvious, characteristic short or squashed nose appearance. Any breed of dog or cat with a brachycephalic head conformation can be affected, e.g.:
There are four main areas of concern in these animals:
Whilst dogs are commonly presented to vets with clinically significant problems resulting from BOAS, cats are rarely presented for treatment. This may partly be a reflection of the more sedentary lifestyle of some cats compared to dogs; most cats that are presented only require treatment for narrowed nares (nostrils).
Narrowed nares (nostrils) can dramatically increase the resistance to air flow into the nose of brachycephalic breeds. This, combined with the tendency for the cartilage supports of the nares to collapse during inspiration, requires a much larger effort than normal in order to breathe.
An overlong soft palate can partially obstruct air flow into the trachea (windpipe) and also cause turbulent airflow in the area of the larynx (voicebox). Both of these effects further increase the effort required for an affected animal to breathe in, and can cause significant inflammation of the upper airway.
Unfortunately, the extra effort required to breathe in (inspiration) eventually results in secondary problems, since the airway is not adapted to cope with the turbulence and increased negative pressures which develop.
These secondary effects include:
When carrying out a physical examination, your vet will assess your dog or cat’s anatomy (some heads are shorter than others) and your pet’s behaviour in certain circumstances.
Most brachycephalic animals will experience a degree of upper airway obstruction, usually evident as snorting or snoring noises. The key is for you and your veterinary surgeon to decide between you whether your pet is experiencing a significant level of signs or showing an anatomical conformation that may predispose him/her to problems. The discussion will involve how your pet copes with exercise or warm conditions and also any likely susceptibility to secondary deterioration within the airway.
Unfortunately, only the nares (nostrils) can be properly assessed without the requirement for a general anaesthetic. Initially therefore, the diagnosis is based on the veterinary surgeon’s overall assessment but will require further investigation to confirm the diagnosis.
There are a number of tests that may be required, depending on the findings of the initial physical examination. These can include blood tests, cardiac (heart) assessment and chest X-rays. However, full airway assessment will require an anaesthetic.
General anaesthesia in brachycephalic dogs can be associated with increased risk, particularly during the induction and recovery phases.
The surgeon may use an endoscope (small camera) to examine the oesophagus for signs of gastric reflux.
Treatment is usually a combination of medical management and surgical treatment.
The gold standard of treatment is to relieve the upper airway obstruction as much and as early as possible to decrease the breathing effort needed, which will also prevent deterioration of secondary conditions. Early surgery can therefore improve the quality of life in the short term by easing the breathing effort and exercise tolerance, but also long term by preventing deterioration of the secondary conditions.
The lifestyle of many of these patients can predisposed them to obesity. Weight loss can dramatically improve the airflow through the pharynx and neck and MUST form part of the treatment protocol in overweight patients.
Acid reflux, oesophagitis and regurgitation
Treatment with antacids (e.g. omeprazole) and prokinetics (e.g. metocloperamide) should begin at least five days before the surgery and may be continued long term.
Surgery can be performed conventionally (with scalpel) or by using a Diode laser.
Using a Diode laser has many benefits over conventional surgical techniques using a scalpel. The laser cuts and seals all the small capillaries and lymphatics resulting in less post operative swelling. It also seals small nerves which may result in less post operative pain. Laser also facilitates a reduction in the thickness of the soft palate as well as reducing its length which gives a better long term outcome. Additionally there is no foreign suture material that may potentially cause problems. Laser is more precise, reduces surgical time and the heat sterilises the site reducing risk of infection. Medivet currently has Laser surgery available at Medivet Richmond and Medivet Southend.
Surgical treatment may involve:
Surgical treatment stenotic nares (narrowed nostrils)
Removal of a section of the cartilage of the front of the nose or a section of skin next to the nose can improve the airflow through the nares.
Overlong soft palate
The excess length of the soft palate can be reduced by surgery in order to reduce the interference with air flow into the larynx (voice box).
During early laryngeal collapse the laryngeal ventricles evert and cause further obstruction to the airflow. The surgeon will assess the larynx (voice box) and decide whether removal of the laryngeal ventricles is appropriate or likely to be beneficial.
Severe (Grade 3) collapse is unlikely to benefit greatly from a minor procedure and may require a permanent tracheostomy (breathing hole in the neck)
Some cases may benefit from tonsillectomy (removal of the tonsils). The decision on whether this is appropriate is made at the time of assessment and surgery.
Most dogs suffering from clinical signs of BOAS that receive prompt appropriate treatment can experience a significant improvement in exercise tolerance and ease of breathing. However, due to the fact that the surgeon can never create a completely normal airway for brachycephalic animals, they remain susceptible to heat stress and many are unlikely to be able to exercise to a level that one might expect from animals with normal head conformation.
It is generally hoped that surgery to the nares, soft palate and the larynx will slow the progression of laryngeal collapse (voice box collapse) by improving the airflow and reducing the negative pressures developed during respiration.
Early surgery, carried out before the laryngeal collapse has become severe, should maximise the benefit from surgery and minimise the risks of significant laryngeal collapse later in life.
Many dogs do not experience significant further deterioration in the larynx during their lifetime and therefore never require further surgery.
Unfortunately, despite treatment, laryngeal collapse can reach a critical level in some cases and may require further surgery at some point in the future.
Despite the many precautions taken by veterinary surgeons in assessment and treatment of these patients, the risk of the general anaesthetic and surgery to the airway can never be eliminated.
Hypoplastic trachea (small windpipe) cannot be treated and these dogs are often severely affected by the impairment to airflow associated with this condition.
If you are concerned for your pet or would like further information about BOAS, please do not hesitate to contact your local Medivet practice today.